Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus, Cynara scolymus, Artichoke, Artichoke leaf, Globe artichoke

Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus, Cynara scolymus, Artichoke, Artichoke leaf. What has been known since the time of Linneaus (1753) as Cynara scolymus, the common artichoke, for which the bracts of the unopened flowerheads are used as food, is now known as "Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus", of the "Cynara cardunculus Scolymus group." A member of the aster family, Asteraceae or Compositae, native to Europe and cultivated commercially in California. The leaves of artichoke, the same artichoke whose flowerbuds are eaten as a vegetable, is used in European herbal traditions to stimulate bile flow caused by biliary tract dysfunction. The leaves bitter compounds simulate bile secretion and bile movement hence it is known as known as a choleretic. It is used to protect the liver from toxins and reduce cholesterol. The leaf extracts are used in phytomedicine for various dyspeptic complaints. Some studies show positive results while other have shown no benefit.

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