Picea mariana, Black Spruce
Picea mariana, Black Spruce pitch was used by Algonquin groups as a poultice for boils, scabs, sores and abscesses; also gum routinely chewed. Various native groups made spruce beer by boiling twigs and cones, then adding maple syrup to start fermentation. The beer, along with the leafy tips, was offered to early Europeans explorers to treat scurvy. Inner bark contains bioactive polyphenols such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant resveratrol.
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