Sambucus ebulus, European dwarf elder, Dwarf elder, Danewort.

Sambucus ebulus, European dwarf elder, Dwarf elder, Danewort is an ancient medicinal plant included in the works of the likes of Pliny the Elder and Dioscorides in the first century. The genus in recent memory has been placed in the Caprifoliaceae, the Adoxaceae, and now the Viburnaceae. It has a large underground stem coming off a tuber and dies back with the first frost. This fast growing, robust plant is found in much of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. In Middle East folk medicine, the leaves are used externally for the treatment of rheumatic pain, abscesses, wounds, sunstroke, and other uses. Fresh leaves cooked in milk were used internally and externally to great wounds. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and neuroprotective activity are attributed to the plant. It has also been used in metabolic disorders. Raw, uncooked berries are considered toxic.

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